What is Oxycodone
Oxycodone is an opioid medicine available for the management of moderate to severe pain. It is an oral medication in both immediate-release and extended-release formulations. Oxycodone’s onset of action typically begins within 15 minutes, and effects wear off in about six hours for immediate-release forms. People can also buy oxycodone online in combination with acetaminophen or aspirin.
Oxycodone is more potent than morphine as studies show that 5 mg of oxycodone has roughly 1.5 times the effectiveness of 5 mg morphine.
Germans first made oxycodone from thebaine in the year 1916. In the United States, the medication is also available as a generic version with a wholesale cost of less than $0.30 per pill.
Oxycodone is one of the most prescribed opioid analgesics in the United States, with more than 10 million prescriptions per year.
Uses of Oxycodone
You can buy oxycodone online for managing your pain conditions ranging from moderate to severe acute or chronic pain. Doctors prescribe oxycodone only when other treatment options such as combination opioids or non-opioid analgesics are not sufficient for a patient to provide required pain relief. The medication may also improve the quality of life in certain conditions.
Oxycodone also comes as controlled released tablets that have analgesic effects ranging for about 12 hours. An independent study conducted in July 1996 found that oxycodone’s controlled-release form has a variable action duration ranging from 10 to 12 hours.
A review printed in 2006 says that oxycodone-controlled release is comparable to its immediate-release forms, hydromorphone, and morphine in the treatment of cancer pain, with fewer side effects than others. It concludes that controlled-release oxycodone is a first-line treatment and a valid alternative to morphine for cancer pain.
The United States FDA approves oxycodone extended-release forms for children of 11 years and above for relief of trauma pain, cancer pain, or pain due to surgery only for children already treated with opioid analgesics, and who have the tolerance of at least 20 mg oxycodone per day.
Mechanism of Action
Oxycodone is an artificial or semi-synthetic opioid, which is a selective full agonist of the MOR (mu-opioid receptor), the primary biological target of the endogenous opioid neuropeptide beta-endorphin. The medication has a low affinity for KOR (k-opioid receptor) and DOR (delta opioid receptor), where it is an agonist. After binding to MOR, oxycodone releases a G protein-complex inhibiting the release of cell neurotransmitters by decreasing the production of cAMP, opening channels of potassium, and closing channels of calcium.
Scientists believe that oxycodone produces its analgesic effects by activating MOR in the midbrain PAG (periaqueductal gray) and RVM (rostral ventromedial medulla). Conversely, they provide addiction by activating MOR in the MRV (mesolimbic reward pathway), including in the ventral pallidum, nucleus accumbens, and ventral tegmental area.
Oxycodone produces several side effects along with its needed healing impact. People should buy oxycodone online only on a doctor’s prescription. Severe side effects of the medication include reduced sensitivity to pain, anxiolysis, euphoria, feelings of relaxation, and respiratory depression.
Some common adverse effects of oxycodone include:
- Nausea (23%)
- Constipation (23%)
- Somnolence (23%)
- Itching (13%)
- Dizziness (13%)
- Vomiting (12%)
- Dry mouth (6%)
- Sweating (5%)
Less common oxycodone side effects experienced by less than 5 % of patients include nervousness, loss of appetite, diarrhea, abdominal pain, dyspnea, urine retention, and hiccups.
Most of the adverse effects become less severe over time and gradually go away in a few days or within a week. However, constipation is more likely to continue throughout use.
The medication interacts with many drugs to produce unwanted effects. It is advisable to buy oxycodone online and read the label instructions to know about all its potential drug interactions.
Enzymes such as CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 metabolize oxycodone. So, the inhibitors and inducers of these enzymes can alter the clearance of oxycodone by increasing and decreasing the medication’s half-life, respectively. Genetic variations in these enzymes also influence the removal of oxycodone, which relates to the wide inter-person variability in its potency and half-life.
Lopinavir/ritonavir or ritonavir significantly increase oxycodone’s plasma concentrations in healthy humans due to inhibition of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4.
Rifampicin reduces oxycodone’s plasma concentration due to its active CYP3A4 inducing property. In a chronic pain patient, fosphenytoin, an inducer of CYP2A4, dramatically reduces the analgesic effects of oxycodone.
It is necessary for a doctor to adjust the dosages or medications in case of drug interactions.